Database management is a system of managing information that supports a business’s operations. It involves storing and distributing data it to users and applications and editing it when needed and monitoring changes to the data and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is an element of a company’s total informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database consists of tables that organize data in accordance with a specific schema, such as one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table contains a number of fields, known as attributes, that contain information about the data entities. The most well-known type of database today is a relational model, created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to update different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can accommodate multiple database types by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability and other operational concerns such as the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications It could include a mix of external views based on different data models. It can include virtual tables that are computed with generic data to enhance the performance.

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