Database management is a method for managing the data that is used to support a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications and editing it when needed, monitoring data changes, and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is an integral part of the entire informational infrastructure of a company that assists in decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) that made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts data for a wide range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables that are organized in accordance with a specific schema, such as one-to many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most popular database type currently. This design is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It is also easier to update data since it doesn’t require the modification of certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational issues including the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It may include a mix of different external views that are based on different data models. It could include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.

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